warning: implicit declaration of function

My compiler (GCC) is giving me the warning:

warning: implicit declaration of function

Please help me understand why is it coming.

8 Answers

You are using a function for which the compiler has not seen a declaration (“prototype“) yet.

For example:

int main()
{
    fun(2, "21"); /* The compiler has not seen the declaration. */       
    return 0;
}

int fun(int x, char *p)
{
    /* ... */
}

You need to declare your function before main, like this, either directly or in a header:

int fun(int x, char *p);

The right way is to declare function prototype in header.

Example

main.h

#ifndef MAIN_H
#define MAIN_H

int some_main(const char *name);

#endif

main.c

#include "main.h"

int main()
{
    some_main("Hello, Worldn");
}

int some_main(const char *name)
{
    printf("%s", name);
}

Alternative with one file (main.c)

static int some_main(const char *name);

int some_main(const char *name)
{
    // do something
}

When you do your #includes in main.c, put the #include reference to the file that contains the referenced function at the top of the include list. e.g. Say this is main.c and your referenced function is in “SSD1306_LCD.h”

#include "SSD1306_LCD.h"    
#include "system.h"        #include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <xc.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <math.h>
#include <libpic30.h>       // http://microchip.wikidot.com/faq:74
#include <stdint.h>
#include <stdbool.h>
#include "GenericTypeDefs.h"  // This has the 'BYTE' type definition

The above will not generate the “implicit declaration of function” error, but below will-

#include "system.h"        
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <xc.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <math.h>
#include <libpic30.h>       // http://microchip.wikidot.com/faq:74
#include <stdint.h>
#include <stdbool.h>
#include "GenericTypeDefs.h"     // This has the 'BYTE' type definition
#include "SSD1306_LCD.h"    

Exactly the same #include list, just different order.

Well, it did for me.

When you get the error: implicit declaration of function it should also list the offending function. Often this error happens because of a forgotten or missing header file, so at the shell prompt you can type man 2 functionname and look at the SYNOPSIS section at the top, as this section will list any header files that need to be included. Or try http://linux.die.net/man/ This is the online man pages they are hyperlinked and easy to search. Functions are often defined in the header files, including any required header files is often the answer. Like cnicutar said,

You are using a function for which the compiler has not seen a declaration (“prototype”) yet.

If you have the correct headers defined & are using a non GlibC library (such as Musl C) gcc will also throw error: implicit declaration of function when GNU extensions such as malloc_trim are encountered.

The solution is to wrap the extension & the header:

#if defined (__GLIBC__)
  malloc_trim(0);
#endif

You need to declare the desired function before your main function:

#include <stdio.h>
int yourfunc(void);

int main(void) {

   yourfunc();
 }

I think the question is not 100% answered. I was searching for issue with missing typeof(), which is compile time directive.

Following links will shine light on the situation:

https://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-5.3.0/gcc/Typeof.html

https://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-5.3.0/gcc/Alternate-Keywords.html#Alternate-Keywords

as of conculsion try to use __typeof__() instead. Also gcc ... -Dtypeof=__typeof__ ... can help.

Don’t forget, if any functions that are called in your function and their prototypes must be situated above your function in the code otherwise the compiler might not find them before it attempts to compile your function. This will generate the error in question.

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