Bergman’s Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation PDF download

Details about Bergman’s Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation

1451 Pages – 2016 – 97.5 MB – 54621 Downloads – English

Bergman’s Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation PDF

Bergman’s Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation PDF free download – Since the beginning of time, differences between humans have made us identifiable to those around us. Some extreme forms of morphological variation have even resulted in individuals being either unique or outcasts. For example, dwarfs have been revered in various cultures and even represented in royal courts and some cultures have bestowed a god status on children born with multiple limbs. Other variations, however, have been viewed as “different” enough to warrant being ostracized. Children being born with a caudal appendage (tail) who were considered offspring of Satan exemplify this.

Human anatomic variation can be defined as human form that is outside of the normal. However, what is normal? This question is often very difficult to answer. For example, most would agree that having two breasts is normal but what about a woman with accessory breasts? Is this normal, abnormal or even pathologic? Is it a variant or an anomaly? Sometimes, the answer to these questions is based on cultural norms or societal acceptance.

Obviously, hair color is certainly varied among individuals with many having a color that doesn’t fit into the classic brown, black, red, or blonde categories. But are various hair colors that one of these terms does not apply to have a variation or is this simply an issue of definition e.g. red in the broader sense would include auburn, strawberry, etc.? In other words, our definition of normal is the gauge by which an anatomic trait is considered a variation or not. Some have tried to shed light on this by using such words as “borderlands.” Beyond the “border” a trait is thereby considered a variation. To confuse these issues, the term anomaly is and has been used interchangeably in regard to both variation and pathology. Herein, we have attempted to avoid pathologic anatomy but often, the line between an anatomic variation that is pathologic or predisposes one to pathology and one that is just a trait that is outside of what is considered normal is very gray. Moreover, as the term “anomaly” is often used to denote a variation that results in dysfunction or disease, we have tried to avoid this term when possible. However, the form of a structure may cause dysfunction in one person and not another. Therefore, “anomalies” do not always result in dysfunction or disease. The terms “abnormal” and “aberrant” have each been used loosely in the medical literature to describe anatomy that is non-pathologic or results in dysfunction.

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